Constituent and Classification cum type of Food
a. Food consists of the following constituents
iii. Fats and Oil
8. Mineral salts
Carbohydrates Include sugar, starch, glycogen animal starch and cellulose (from plants). They contain mainly oxygen, carbon and hydrogen and are grouped as simple sugars (monosachride) e.g grape and fruit sugars, complex sugar (disaccharide) e.g cane or malt sugar, very complex sugars (polysaccharide)e.g starch, glycogen and cellulose. Examples of carbohydrate include rice, maize, millet, potatoes yam, cocoyam, banana. They give us energy, warm the body and form fat in the body.
Proteins are complex food substances containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur. They contain little units called amino acid. Proteins are classified into various groups. Main sources of protein food include: * Animal proteins-milk e.g fish, meat, termites, etc
* Plant proteins-groundnuts, wheat, beans, sugar, cashew-nuts etc. Protein foods help to repair the body, build cells of the body and supply heat and energy.
Fats And Oil like Carbohydrate contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are varieties of protein in nature. Fats and Oil are insoluble in water but soluble in some other liquids such as alcohol. Sources include cashew nuts, groundnuts, oil palm, coconut, milk, butter, margarine, meat cheese (all this are aboundant in Africa)
Vitamins are not basically any kind of food but are contained in small quantities in various kinds of food. The important vitamins in nature are vitamin A, B complex, C, D, E and also K. The sources of food including eggs, liver and vegetable. B vitamins found in green vegetable sources of food including palm wine, liver, egg, milk.
Vitamin C are found in fruits of all kinds especially citrus fruits
Vitamin D are found in the oil sources of food including milk and sunshine acting on the body.
Vitamins E are found in the oil, and vegetable sources of food including liver.
Mineral Salts Are inorganic food materials which include Calcium e.g milk, vegetables, cereals and fruits especially oranges, and Iodine e.g common salt, sea food and fishes, green vegetables other mineral salts include, sulphur, flourine and copper.
Water Main Sources of water in our country are as follows:
i. Rain water
ii. Surface water
iv. Streams, Rivers, Ponds, Springs and Taps. All these have degrees of impurities in them acquired either through thet source surrounding mand-made actions and activities or sometimes natural impurity. In order of purity all things being equal the rain water, spring and tap ard the best sources of water supply.